Wednesday, January 9, 2013

Types of cancer

There are various types of cancer but some are as follows

PROSTATE CANCER 

Prostate cancer is currently one of the most common diseases in humans, is constituted as an adenocarcinoma because it affects the glands that are responsible for secretion and the occurrence of the disease is strongly linked to the behavior of hormones, genes and a strong increase of PSA, a prostate-specific antigen. incidence of prostate cancer may be related to familiarity, to changes in hormone levels and the type of diet that follows the patient, adenocarcinoma of the prostate occurs mainly in western countries, where get plenty of protein and fat animals. Symptoms of this particular tumor are very difficult to recognize, the first stage of the disease affects in fact the outermost part of the prostate and the initial effects not affecting therefore the urinary tract; often, however, we noticed the disease only when it involves other organs through widespread metastases while today it is easily seen through a pre-PSA levels with simple blood tests. treatments that can be applied for the treatment of prostate cancer are of various kinds: it is possible to use to surgery, in patients who have good health, this therapy is very effective and greatly improves the life expectancy of the patient, radiation therapy, which is used especially in the early stages or phases of localized disease, finally, can be brought on hormonal treatment, this therapy is used in patients who can not be operated, or in those in which the disease is too widespread, this last type of treatment is used to delay the progression of the disease. 



LUNG CANCER 

The lung cancer is one of the pathologies most striking men and women, can be divided into two main forms: small cell tumors and non-small cell cancers, this type of tumor originates mainly in the bronchi but subsequent metastases can reach other organs of the body such as bones, brain and adrenal glands . Factors that may lead to the development of lung cancer can be varied and of a different kind: the smoke of cigarettes, pipe tobacco, exposure to smog and pollution, the presence on the premises in which they live and work in radon, certain diseases of the lungs and a previous cancer formation in the lung. Principal symptoms that can lead to the diagnosis of lung cancer are persistent cough, difficulty in breathing, strong weight loss, fatigue and the occurrence of bronchitis and pneumonia. doctor After initial investigations that lead to specific physical conditions, may make its own assessment in various ways, the patient may in fact be subjected to a bronchoscopy, which involves placing a thin tube through the mouth or nose to the bronchi, the ' agosapirazione, which involves the insertion of a needle into the patient's chest to remove some cells from the tumor and analyze them, of a thoracentesis, which provides for the aspiration of a part of the pleural fluid and finally a thoracotomy, which is constituted as a true and own surgery. treatments for the treatment of this type of cancer include the use of surgery, with the consequent removal of the tumor formation, Chemotherapy, with the use of medicinal acts to destroy the diseased cells, radiotherapy that, through radiation destroys the targeted cancer cells, and finally the photodynamic therapy that involves the use of a chemical element that is injected into the blood creeps into the diseased cells and allows the following identification and elimination by means of a laser beam. 





stomach cancer 
The stomach cancer originates in this important organ of our body, affecting mainly its walls and its coverings, the incidence of this particular type of cancer occurs in patients aged between 45 and 55 years, and although those cases that are reported are in great decline is now one of the most popular. Probable causes of the formation of this tumor are feeding, if high in fat, smoked foods, salt and too many starches, family predisposition and the presence of a particular virus that originates ulcers and can cause serious damage to the stomach. Different types of stomach cancer, the cancerous training can in fact occur in the intestine and in this case mostly affects men, stomach cancer of the diffuse type, which affects both men and women and attacks the gastric mucosa, the tumor type of early gastric cancer, which affects only the most superficial parts of the stomach, such as the mucosa and submucosa and finally the tumor Krukengerg. Symptoms of this cancer can often be confused with that of gastritis and ulcers and it is therefore necessary to have a gastroscopy for diagnosis, and important effects that constitute themselves as an alarm bell are strong weight loss, difficulties in large quantities of food and vomiting with blood. care of stomach cancer includes surgical treatment through which the interior can be removed stomach, with the resulting change of life style for the patient who must feed in liquid form, or with the removal of a part of the organ, on the basis the extension of the tumor. Also chemotherapy is constituted as a cure effective for this type of tumor, can be used if there are metastases spread on the body and after surgery. 







CANCER LIVER 
The liver cancer is one of the least common and its incidence varies greatly depending on geographic areas that are taken into account; liver cancer affects individuals also apparently not at risk, but there are several factors that may favor the onset. liver cancer, which is one of the most important and significant organs of our body, can be caused by a pre-existing cirrhosis, a disease that significantly impairs the body and gives rise to scar tissue, infections, such as hepatitis and mostly familiar, or if the tumor if the tumor hit a member of his family, training cancer that affects the liver binds also to age and sex, often in fact affected patients are men over the age of 60 years. Diagnosis of this particular cancer is through some tests such as tac, ultrasound, angiogram, blood tests, MRI and biopsy, after which the doctor will determine the degree of spread of tumor formation and the care to which subject the patient. Whether the cancer that afflicts the patient is located, you can resorting to surgery and following the removal of the mass; if the cancer is not operable we can resort to other therapy, such as the thermal ablation, treatment for which, through a probe that emits radio waves that generate heat are eliminated diseased cells, injections of ethanol, which consist in inserting this particular substance in the liver by killing the cancerous cells, chirochirurgia, chemoembolization, which includes a long permanence of chemotherapeutic drugs in the liver and finally the transplantation of the liver. 




brain tumor 

The tumor of the brain is divided into two categories: benign brain tumors, which are formed by cells of cancerous type, this type of tumor is well-localized and does not attack the neighboring tissues, malignant tumors are formed by cancer cells, their growth is very rapid and can reach the other tissues. Factors that can determine the presence of cancer of the brain are not yet very clear, several clinical trials are in fact still trying to find out why, it was decided, however, that a higher incidence of this form of cancer occurs in subjects used in refineries, in the rubber, the embalmers, in the pharmaceutical industry and after exposure to specific viruses. brain tumors may also be divided into primary tumors, whether they originate from the cells of the brain and secondary if the cancer has spread to the brain through metastasis, in this second case, the initial tumor was originated in another organ and the brain are visible diseased cells that do not belong. Symptoms that may be a wake-up call and suggest a tumor the brain can be: strong, but the head which begins from the morning, sleepiness, nausea, changes in behavior and personality, epilepsy, unusual eye movements, difficulty in movement and language. Investigations which the patient may be subjected can be Tac, MRI, angiogram, myelogram, which consists of an x-ray of the spine to detect a tumor in the spinal cord and an X-ray of the skull to determine if the cancer has changed the bones of the head. therapeutic options which the patient , according to the degree of spread of the cancer may be subjected are: surgery, with the total removal, if the tumor does not damage vital organs, partial otherwise and subsequently the part that remains will be radiated, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Brain tumors may also be divided into primary tumors, whether they originate from cells of the brain and secondary if the cancer has spread to the brain through metastases; in this second case the initial tumor was originated in another organ and within the brain are visible diseased cells that do not belong. Symptoms that may be a wake-up call and suggest a brain tumor can be: strong, but the head which begins from the morning, sleepiness, nausea, changes in behavior and personality , epileptic seizures, unusual eye movements, difficulty in movement and language. Investigations which the patient may be subjected can be Tac, MRI, angiogram, myelogram, which consists of an x-ray of the spine to detect a tumor in the spinal cord and an X-ray of the skull to determine if the cancer has changed the bones of the head. therapeutic options the patient, according to the degree of spread of the tumor may be submitted are: surgery, with complete removal, if the tumor not damage vital organs, partial if not, then the remaining part will be radiated, radiation, and chemotherapy. Brain tumors may also be divided into primary tumors, whether they originate from cells of the brain and secondary if the cancer has spread to the brain through metastases; in this second case the initial tumor was originated in another organ and within the brain are visible diseased cells that do not belong. Symptoms that may be a wake-up call and suggest a brain tumor can be: strong, but the head which begins from the morning, sleepiness, nausea, changes in behavior and personality , epileptic seizures, unusual eye movements, difficulty in movement and language. Investigations which the patient may be subjected can be Tac, MRI, angiogram, myelogram, which consists of an x-ray of the spine to detect a tumor in the spinal cord and an X-ray of the skull to determine if the cancer has changed the bones of the head. therapeutic options the patient, according to the degree of spread of the tumor may be submitted are: surgery, with complete removal, if the tumor not damage vital organs, partial if not, then the remaining part will be radiated, radiation, and chemotherapy. 









CANCER SKIN 
The skin cancers affect our epithelial tissues more or less common, this particular form of cancer can be determined by a strong increase in the production of melanocytes and cells of the epithelium. Factors that can lead to cancerous manifestations of this type are the bad exposure to sunlight, the familial predisposition, the presence of numerous freckles and in degrees of variable size and color; the skin cancer also has a higher incidence in patients with skin, eyes and pale hair during sun exposure are more likely to get burned. Symptoms that may lead to a diagnosis of skin cancer concern the characteristics of which are located in Body: increase of the shape, contours that are not well-defined, color that varies over time, assuming different tones simultaneously, asymmetrical shape. Subsequent investigation by the treating physician, to make sure of the presence of a form cancerous epithelial level may be carried out only by observation of the neo and a subsequent biopsy, with which will be charged to a small portion of tissue that will be subsequently analyzed in the laboratory. cancer is diagnosed that may occur in four different stages, this classification concerns the severity of tumor formation and whether and how the latter to reach the lymph nodes and metastases created in the rest of the body.care of skin cancer involves the removal of the cancer when it is localized and subsequent topical application of drugs for chemotherapy for melanoma is used surgery, which may also include the removal of some lymph nodes which may contain tumor cells. 




Breast cancer

Breast cancer is the most common among women in our country and are currently several cases that are diagnosed, studies on Italian women show how breast cancer affects most of the women in the north than the south, we come to the conclusion that the lifestyle, nutrition, the age at which they were first pregnancy, radiation exposure, family history and age significantly affect the occurrence of this disease. Today all breast cancer has a high probability of healing, established between 70 and 80%, a measure significantly higher than that of recent years; the high percentage of healing is due to early diagnoses that are made ​​through the use of modern equipment of the highest quality. plays an important role in the diagnosis of breast cancer is done by the woman herself, it is important that it is done often car palpation, to verify a possible presence of nodules, in this way, in fact, the doctor will have the opportunity to perform a thorough examination with ultrasound to locate the problem. care of breast cancer today is far less invasive than in previous decades, in fact, the first intervention involved the removal of the diseased breast and a powerful radiation of chemotherapy in some cases led to the paralysis of the arm, currently the surgery has been greatly improved and thanks to the branch of plastic surgery offers women a chance at a normal life. 





Colon cancer
Colon cancer, a disease that affects the intestinal tract, is one of the most common diseases and constitutes itself as the second leading cause of cancer death after tumor formation that affect the breast, lung and for women and men. Factors that may intervene in the formation of this tumor may be the ' power, if it consists of high-fat animal type, cholesterol, high alcohol intake, the presence of colorectal polyps and inheritance. The initial disturbances that may occur to the patient and that could be a wake-up call can be listed as follows: weight loss, fatigue, anemia, abdominal pain and blood in the stool.Colon cancer in severe cases and in older people can be treated successfully by surgery, an operation that involves the removal of part of ' intestine and the presence of a bag on the abdomen, this type of intervention is called ostomy; currently, however, the medicine is making great strides and, thanks to the use of radiotherapy as preparation for surgery, the operations are able to establish itself as conservative, greatly improving the life of the patient. Other forms of treatment for colon cancer are chemotherapy, which can be performed before or after surgery, or radiotherapy, however, that it is effective only on tumors of the rectum. 
Colon cancer, a disease that affects the intestinal tract, is one of the most common diseases and constitutes itself as the second leading cause of cancer death after tumor formation that affect the breast, lung and for women and men. Factors that may intervene in the formation of this tumor may be the ' power, if it consists of high-fat animal type, cholesterol, high alcohol intake, the presence of colorectal polyps and inheritance. The initial disturbances that may occur to the patient and that could be a wake-up call can be listed as follows: weight loss, fatigue, anemia, abdominal pain and blood in the stool.Colon cancer in severe cases and in older people can be treated successfully by surgery, an operation that involves the removal of part of ' intestine and the presence of a bag on the abdomen, this type of intervention is called ostomy; currently, however, the medicine is making great strides and, thanks to the use of radiotherapy as preparation for surgery, the operations are able to establish itself as conservative, greatly improving the life of the patient. Other forms of treatment for colon cancer are chemotherapy, which can be performed before or after surgery, or radiotherapy, however, that it is effective only on tumors of the rectum. 



what is cancer?

The cell is the building block of the body. In the case of cancer, there is an uncontrolled growth of cells. This results in a tumor, called a tumor called. Such a tumor is the body can no longer control it.
Malignant tumors include the property that they can spread to other places in the body. This behavior is called the spread of the tumor, or in medical jargon: metastasis. These metastases often cause major problems in the (treatment) patient with a tumor.Some malignant tumors do not sow or very late in the disease process, but may be due to their size or their tendency to grow into the surrounding healthy tissue do much damage.
Tumors that do not metastasize and not in their environment ingrowth, as  benign seen. Unfortunately, this does not mean than benign tumors can give no problem. A benign tumor on a nasty place can sometimes be more hassle than a malignant tumor in a convenient place .




Sunday, January 6, 2013

symptoms of tuberculosis

There are four types of tuberculosis which have different symptoms
  • pulmonary tuberculosis
  • extrapulmonary tuberculosis
  • pleural tuberculosis
  • lymph node tuberculosis 
 Symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis Pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common manifestation of the disease. The transmission takes place through the air, via aerosols expelled by coughing, sneezing or by the own speech. It is estimated that an infected person, if not treated, can contaminate other 15 in an interval of one year.According to statistics, of these fifteen, only one or two symptoms develop. Attention: only symptomatic cases are capable of transmitting the disease. If you came in contact with the bacillus, but did not develop disease, there is no risk of transmission of bacteria to others.The typical picture of pulmonary tuberculosis is fever with night sweats and chills, chest pain, coughing, at times with streaks of blood, loss of appetite, sluggishness, and weight loss that reaches 10 or 15 kg in a few weeks. Being also a lung infection, the picture may remind us of pneumonia. However, while pneumonia is a more acute disease, which develops in hours / days, tuberculosis is slower, evolving in weeks. Some TB patients seek care only two months after the onset of symptoms. It should always think of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with pneumonia dragged box that do not improve with antibiotics common.

File:Pulmonary tuberculosis symptoms.svg

Symptoms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis TB in other organs often causes weight loss, fever, night sweats , prostration, loss of appetite. The difference is that no respiratory symptoms such as coughing, but specific symptoms of the condition of each organ.
 

Symptoms of pleural tuberculosis extrapulmonary TB is more common pleural tuberculosis, which, as the name says, affects the pleura, the lung lining. The most common symptoms (in addition to those described above) are unilateral chest pain and shortness of breath caused by the appearance of pleural effusion, better known as water in the pleura
.

Symptoms of lymph node tuberculosis Tuberculosis is a common node in the seropositive patients infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The box is typically increased lymph nodes in the neck region.At first, the nodes are slow growing and are painless, then increase in volume and tend to clump together, which can create fistulas (communications) to the skin.


Saturday, January 5, 2013

what is tuberculosis?

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium tuberculosis (BK), named after the doctor who discovered it in 1882, Robert Koch.


Koch's bacillus or BK is the bacterium that causes tuberculosis infects the respiratory predilection: pulmonary tuberculosis represents a little more than 70% of TB cases.
The disease can affect all organs. The main locations are described extra-pulmonary lymph nodes, urogenital, musculoskeletal and cerebrospinal meningitis.
This infection is considered a public health priority throughout the world, especially as the number of cases resistant to treatment increases concern.
Depending on the number of drugs that resists BK, is called multidrug resistance (resistance to at least two major antituberculous antibiotics) or highly resistant (resistant to virtually all TB). 
World Day of fight against tuberculosis, held on 24 March each year, is an opportunity to take stock of the situation of the disease in the world and progress in its management.



Sunday, January 22, 2012

mesothelioma


What is Mesothelioma?
 Mesothelioma (or specifically, malignant mesothelioma) Mesothelioma is a rare type of cancer that occurs in the thin layer of cells lining the body's internal organs, known as the mesothelium. In other words Mesothelioma is a tumour of the mesothelium. This is the thin membrane that lines the chest and abdomen (tummy) and surrounds the organs in these areas.

The most common anatomical site for the development of mesothelioma is the pleura Mesothelioma Cancer
Image courtesy of the Mesothelioma Cancer Alliance.
(the outer lining of the lungs and internal chest wall), but it can also arise in the peritoneum (the lining of the abdominal cavity), and the pericardium (the sac that surrounds the heart), or the tunica vaginalis (a sac that surrounds the testis).
 Most people who develop mesothelioma   have worked in jobs where they inhaled asbestost(a substance that does not burn easily that was used in building materials in the past. It is now known to cause cancer and is no longer used), or were exposed to asbestos dust and fibers in other ways Some people who were exposed to asbestos have collected damages for asbestos-related disease, including mesothelioma.
Mesothelioma is an aggressive and deadly form of cancer. Mesothelioma treatments are available, treatment for mesothelioma is often focused on keeping you as comfortable as possible.

mesothelioma lawyer:
As i explain above Asbestos exposure has been conclusively linked to mesothelioma and other fatal diseases .For 100 years, asbestos was one of the most commonly used materials in industries such as construction, shipbuilding and manufacturing.The disease of mesothelioma cancer can drastically change your finances.The biggest expense coming your way will be a share of medical bills. Even with good medical insurance, some expenses will not be covered. If you have an asbestos-induced disease,seriously consider contacting a qualified mesothelioma lawyer immediately. These types of cases are time sensitive, and only a lawyer trained in asbestos litigation should help you decide if and when to pursue a lawsuit against a company who may be responsible for exposing you to asbestos. Each state limits the time you have to file a lawsuit after you diagnosed with mesothelioma cancer. A mesothelioma lawyer can help you file your claim before the statute of limitations expires.In a mesothelioma lawsuit, the attorney will deal with actual filing of the case and then all aspects of it after that.

Symptoms of Mesothelioma:

  •  shortness of breath             
  • heavy feeling in the chest area
  •       
these two symptoms is caused by fluid build up in the lungs. These two symptoms should be taken seriously 89.9% of all patients will notice these two symptoms. However, because the symptoms do not seem serious many choose not to seek out medical care. Some symptoms common with pleural mesothelioma include back, chest or side pain, difficulty swallowing, cough, fatigue and weight loss. Peritoneal mesothelioma is often is often accompanied by abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, back pain, anemia and bowel obstruction.


Types of Mesothelioma:

There are three main types of Mesothelioma.

  • Pleural mesothelioma
  • Peritoneal mesothelioma
  • Pericardial mesothelioma
Pleural mesothelioma:
The pleura is the outer lining of the lung. It has two layers; the inner (visceral) layer, which is next to the lung, and the outer (parietal) layer, which lines the chest wall. The two layers of the pleura are usually in contact and slide over each other as we breathe. The layers produce fluid, which allows them to move smoothly over each other.
When mesothelioma develops in the pleura (pleural mesothelioma), the delicate linings thicken and may press inwards on the lung. Fluid may also collect between the two layers of the pleura: this is known as a pleural effusion. Around 3 out of 4 of cases of mesothelioma develop in the pleura.
Peritoneal mesothelioma:
The outer lining of the abdomen is known as the peritoneum. It also has two layers: the inner (visceral) layer, which is next to the abdominal organs, and the outer (parietal) layer, which lines the abdominal wall. Mesothelioma in the peritoneum is called peritoneal mesothelioma. It causes thickening of the linings surrounding the abdominal organs and a collection of fluid in the abdomen. The collection of fluid is called ascites and causes swelling of the abdomen. Around 1 in 4 cases of mesothelioma develop in the peritoneum.

Pericardial mesothelioma:
Pericardial mesothelioma is the rarest form of the three main forms of mesothelioma, affecting the protective layer covering the heart.The membrane has two layers: an outer layer called the parietal layer, heart sac or theca cordis, and an inner layer known as the visceral layer or epicardium. Exposure to asbestos is the main cause of this condition. It is not clearly understood how these tiny fibers make their way to the pericardium.

Diagnosis:
Mesothelioma is difficult for doctors to diagnose because it can be easily confused with other diseases. Even after a cancer diagnosis has been recognized, mesothelioma looks similar to other types of cancer in diagnostic tests.
Diagnosis begins with a review of the patient's medical history. A history of exposure to asbestos may increase clinical suspicion for mesothelioma. A physical examination is performed, followed by chest X-ray often lung function tests. he X-ray may reveal pleural thickening commonly seen after asbestos exposure and increases suspicion of mesothelioma. A CT (or CAT) scan or an MRI is usually performed. If a large amount of fluid is present, abnormal cells may be detected by cytopathology if this fluid is aspirated with a syringe. For pleural fluid, this is done by thoracentesis or tube thoracostomy (chest tube); for ascites, with paracentesis or ascitic drain; and for pericardial effusion with pericardiocentesis. While absence of malignant cells on cytology does not completely exclude mesothelioma, it makes it much more unlikely, especially if an alternative diagnosis can be made (e.g. tuberculosis , heart failure ). Using conventional cytology diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma is difficult, but immunocytochemistry has greatly enhanced the accuracy of cytology.


main treatments types:
  • Surgery
  • chemotherapy
  • radiation

Surgery:

Surgery, by itself, has proved disappointing. In one large series, the median survival with surgery (including extrapleural pneumonectomy) was only 11.7 months. However, research indicates varied success when used in combination with radiation and chemotherapy (Duke, 2008). (For more information on multimodality therapy with surgery, see below). A pleurectomy/decortication is the most common surgery, in which the lining of the chest is removed. Less common is an extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP), in which the lung, lining of the inside of the chest, the hemi-diaphragm and the pericardium are removed.

Chemotherapy:

Chemotherapy is the only treatment for mesothelioma that has been proven to improve survival in randomised and controlled trials. The landmark study published in 2003 by Vogelzang and colleagues compared cisplatin chemotherapy alone with a combination of cisplatin and pemetrexed (brand name Alimta) chemotherapy in patients who had not received chemotherapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma previously and were not candidates for more aggressive "curative" surgery.

Radiation:

For patients with localized disease, and who can tolerate a radical surgery, radiation is often given post-operatively as a consolidative treatment. The entire hemi-thorax is treated with radiation therapy, often given simultaneously with chemotherapy. Delivering radiation and chemotherapy after a radical surgery has led to extended life expectancy in selected patient populations with some patients surviving more than 5 years. As part of a curative approach to mesothelioma, radiotherapy is also commonly applied to the sites of chest drain insertion, in order to prevent growth of the tumor along the track in the chest wall.
Although mesothelioma is generally resistant to curative treatment with radiotherapy alone, palliative treatment regimens are sometimes used to relieve symptoms arising from tumor growth, such as obstruction of a major blood vessel. Radiation therapy when given alone with curative intent has never been shown to improve survival from mesothelioma. The necessary radiation dose to treat mesothelioma that has not been surgically removed would be very toxic.




Wednesday, January 11, 2012

mesothelioma treatment


Cancer treatment usually focuses upon destroying malignant cells and preserving healthy ones. This can be accomplished in a number of ways. At the present, patients will typically utilize three primary mechanisms for mesothelioma treatment. Either surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, or some combination of the three are considered the most effective for the treatment of malignant mesothelioma. What course of treatment is recommended will largely depend on these issues.
Once a patient is diagnosed with mesothelioma, an oncologist can go ahead and plan an appropriate path of treatment for the individual. Since every person and their cancer is unique, a tailored form of treatment is necessary to ensure the best prognosis.
There are a number of different types of treatment available for this disease. Among the curative options that are available are surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Many patients who have been diagnosed with mesothelioma are given a combination of the three, in what is called a multimodal approach.

 By combining more than one of these rigorous treatments, it is possible to approach a solution to the cancer from various angles.In addition to these options, there are also some more experimental procedures. Among these options are photodynamic therapy, gene therapy, immunotherapy, hormonal therapy, anti-angiogenesis therapy and ozone therapy.  Unfortunately, these options are still in the experimental phase, with little knowledge as to their effectiveness. For this reason they are typically only available to patients as part of a clinical trial. Patients who agree to take part in a clinical trial are not only exposing themselves to treatments that may be beneficial; they are also providing researchers with  the information that they need to develop new treatments and possibly cures for people who are suffering from mesothelioma in the present and future.


Main Treatment Types

Surgery:
There are different forms of mesothelioma surgery and some are proposed as a curative measure, while others are designed to relieve symptoms of the disease that can be quite debilitating and interfere with the patient's quality of life.
Ideally, candidates for these surgeries will be in the early stages of the disease where the tumor is still fairly localized and metastasis has not occurred. In addition, the patient will need to be in overall good health and free of other medical issues that can complicate these procedures and lengthen the recovery period. Extant medical issues - like heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes - are often an issue with older mesothelioma patients, further limiting treatment options and making aggressive surgical procedures a less favorable choice
However,


Curative surgery
curative surgery is a major operation - and, as the name suggests, possibly life-changing. But not everybody who has mesothelioma qualifies for such surgery. Patients who want to consider this surgery generally must have good health on their side.Ideally, candidates for these surgeries will be in the early stages of the disease where the tumor is still fairly localized and metastasis has not occurred. Doctors want to be sure that this kind of patient can withstand the rigors of a difficult surgery and arduous rehabilitation.the patient will need to be in overall good health and free of other medical issues that can complicate these procedures and lengthen the recovery period

Palliative Surgeries:

Palliative surgery for mesothelioma patients may involve the removal of cancerous tissue or the drainage of excess fluid to provide relief from symptoms and alleviate pain. While palliative surgery does not offer a cure, such treatment has improved quality of life and prolonged survival.

Pleurodesis

Pleurodesis is a palliative treatment option for those coping with pleural mesothelioma. This procedure is performed when pleural effusion is present. Pleural effusion is the buildup of fluid in the lungs, which can cause considerable pain and breathing difficulties.

Thoracotomy

Thoracotomy is a generic term that refers to lung surgery and the procedure can be performed on patients with pleural mesothelioma. There are three main types of thoracotomy procedures, including wedge resection, lobectomy and pneumonectomy. In cases where only small, localized tumors are present, a wedge resection may be performed to remove the tumor

Pleurocentesis

This procedure is used to address pleural effusion, the build-up of fluid in the pleural area surrounding the lungs. The fluid can make it very painful and difficult for a mesothelioma patient to breathe. The procedure is performed in an outpatient area by means of a long, thin needle that is inserted into the pleural space to withdraw fluid. The patient may return home a few hours after the procedure is complete and when the doctor is satisfied that no adverse reactions will occur.

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy is one of the oldest forms of mesothelioma cancer treatment available,

Radiation therapy is a common cancer treatment known to reduce pain among mesothelioma patients. In fact, numerous clinical trials have shown that, on its own, Radiation Therapy does not prolong survival in most mesothelioma patients. Instead, Radiation Therapy is best used with other treatments. radiation is often used together with chemotherapy for optimal results, or may be used after a form of surgery that is designed to remove as much of the cancer as possible.
half of the patients treated with radiation experience some sort of benefit. Side effects are generally easier on a patient than side effects from chemotherapy. The therapy itself is fairly straightforward. A specialist applies ionizing radiation to cancerous tumors. The radiation damages DNA and kills tumor cells.
Radiation therapy is not used to treat all forms of mesothelioma, particularly peritoneal mesothelioma. This type of mesothelioma affects the abdominal area, which contains vital organs and a number of different tissues. Not all of these organs and tissues are afflicted with cancer, so it is not necessary to treat them. But radiation therapy can be toxic to the small intestine, liver, kidneys and other organs. This limits any potential benefit to the therapy.
There are some side effects  of Mesothelioma Radiation i.e:
  • Skin redness
  •  Esophagitis 
  • Fatigue 
  • Nausea 
  • Radiation pneumonitis 
  • Cardiac damage
  •  Radiation myelitis 
  • liver radiation damage

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is one of the most widely in use treatments for cancer of all types. Literally meaning "chemical therapy", it was developed in the 1940s. The primary objective of chemotherapy is to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. It attacks cells which are rapidly dividing and interrupts the division process. While chemotherapy is meant to target cancer cells, it can harm any cells throughout the body that divide quickly. For example, hair follicles are among the fastest growing cells and therefore are easily damaged during chemotherapy treatment, leading many cancer patients to experience temporary hair loss. chemotherapy is used for mesothelioma patients in conjunction with other standard therapies such as mesothelioma radiation. It may also be used in an adjuvant capacity following surgery to eliminate any tumor that remains after the procedure is complete.
Chemotherapy, over the years, has elicited fear in many patients and it is true that this type of treatment can produce unpleasant side effects. It is important therefore, that those with mesothelioma for whom chemotherapy is recommended for palliative reasons, carefully consider these side effects before agreeing to the treatment.
The results of weighing the positive and negative factors of the treatment against the impact on overall quality of life will be different from patient to patient but is necessary to ensure that the best treatment decision is made.


Side effects of Chemotherapy

  • hair loss  
  • Anemia 
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Loss of appetite 
  • Lower platelet count 
  • Diarrhea 
  • Rash 
  • Body aches 
  • Fatigue 
  • Fever 
  • Compromised immune system 
  • itchy in the feet and hands

 list of some of the chemotherapy drugs a mesothelioma patient may be prescribed:

  • Cisplatin 
  • gemcitabine
  •  Alitma 
  • Navelbine 
  • Onconase
  •  Carboplatin

These drugs may be used on their own or as part of a combination of drugs for more aggressive treatment. 


Multimodal Therapy



In a recent study, 46% of mesothelioma patients showed a 5-year survival rate following multimodal therapy
Multimodal therapy is one of the most common approaches to treating mesothelioma, combining two or more treatments that may be completed simultaneously or in a planned sequence. A mesothelioma specialist can most adequately analyze a patient’s condition and develop a treatment regimen that will best benefit the patient.

Saturday, December 10, 2011

Mesothelioma prognosis



What is the prognosis for mesothelioma?

Like most cancers, the prognosis for this disease often depends on how early it is diagnosed 
After being diagnosed with mesothelioma a patient’s doctor or specialist will discuss their prognosis and treatment options with them. Prognosis refers to the likely outcome of the patient’s particular case. Prognosis will also include the patient’s life expectancy


which is dependent upon several factors:
Mesothelioma Life Expectancy Prognostic Factors
  •  Cancer type
  •  Location and size of tumor
  •  Cell type
  •  Cancer stage at the time of diagnosis
  •  Patient ability to receive and respond to treatment
  •  Patient’s age and overall health
  • Amount cancer has metastasized


 Factors help determine a mesothelioma prognosis

When an individual is diagnosed with mesothelioma or any other kind of cancer, one of the first questions they will have is “How long do I have to live?” This is a scary question - and a hard one to ask - but one for which most cancer patients will eventually seek an answer.
It is often very difficult for oncologists and members of a patient’s medical team to give a definitive answer to this query. Indeed, every case is different and cancer can be an unpredictable disease. Sometimes, cases that look hopeless turn out to be not so bleak. In other cases, cancers that don’t look so bad progress quickly and result in an untimely death.
Currently, a number of different issues determine the mesothelioma patient’s prognosis. These include:

  • Type
  • Location
  • Stage of the disease 
  • Metastasis 
  • General health of the patient
  • Mesothelioma Survival rate
  • Mesothelioma Survivors
  • Mesothelioma Remission
Stage at diagnosis is the single most important factor when assessing a patient’s mesothelioma prognosis

    here is a graph to understand life expectancy in mesothelioma stages in years:
    Mesothelioma Prognosis By Stage
    Image courtesy of the Mesothelioma Cancer Alliance.


    Stage 1 mesothelioma:


    When determining the extent and nature of any kind of cancer - which in turn, plays a large part in designing an appropriate cancer treatment - oncologists use a rubric or "staging" system. This is only one of the criteria by which malignancies are classified, the first of which is determined by the location of the tumor and the third of which is determined by the cellular structure (or lack thereof).
    Staging assists the oncologist in determining how far the cancer has advanced and how treatable the patient's malignancy really is.
    Although there are three distinct staging systems currently in use, all three are based on four primary stages:
    • The tumor is confined to one organ or region and is relatively small.
    • The tumor has grown in size, and has spread to one other tissue.
    • The tumor has spread to adjacent areas.
    • The tumor has spread to distant areas of the body, or "metastasized."
    In Stage 1, mesothelioma is localized and confined to one area of the body.

    Prognosis for stage 1

    Patients have the best prognosis at Stage I because the cancer is localized. If mesothelioma is diagnosed early, patients usually will respond better to standard treatments such as surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Younger patients with fewer or less severe symptoms have also been shown to have longer life expectancies.
    The stage of pleural mesothelioma in particular can be an indication of life expectancy. According to one study of 131 patients, those diagnosed during Stage I had a median survival of 35 months, as compared to the 5.9-month median survival of Stage IV patients.


    Stage 2 Mesothelioma


    A diagnosis of Stage 2 mesothelioma means the cancer has begun to spread from the original tumor site. Although still mostly localized, Stage II mesothelioma has spread to the lymph nodes and may have spread to nearby areas. This progression usually creates vague and mild symptoms, which become more apparent as the cancer continues to grow. A patient diagnosed by Stage II generally has more treatment options and a better prognosis than a patient diagnosed at a later stage.

    Prognosis for stage 2

    The prognosis of Stage II patients is generally better than average for mesothelioma. Because the cancer has not become widespread, it can still be treated effectively. This can help prolong life expectancy.
    One study found a strong correlation between pleural mesothelioma stages and life expectancy. In the study of 131 patients, patients who were diagnosed at Stage II had a median survival of 16 months. Some Stage II patients lived for years after diagnosis.

    Stage 3 Mesothelioma

    Unlike the first two stages of mesothelioma, Stage 3 is considered to be an advanced stage of cancer development – and this greatly affects treatment options. Symptoms at this stage can present frequent pain and there are only a few treatments that can provide relief. Because of the limited amount of treatments available, coupled with the fact that there is no mesothelioma cure, prognosis is not typically favorable for Stage 3 patients. Learning more about the definition, symptoms, treatment options, prognosis and resources for Stage III mesothelioma helps patients comprehend their condition and make important decisions.

    Prognosis for stage 3
    Stage III mesothelioma patients typically have a short prognosis, ranging anywhere from a few months to more than a year after diagnosis. Prognosis for Stage III cases is generally poor because there are very few treatment options available that could significantly extend life expectancy. Surgery, which can sometimes improve prognosis, is not always recommended for patients with Stage III mesothelioma because of the extent of the cancer and the difficulty of removing all the tumors.It is important to remember that each mesothelioma case is different. Only a mesothelioma specialist can provide a prognosis for each patient’s individual case.


    Stage 4 Mesothelioma

    Mesothelioma is diagnosed as one of four stages, ranging between Stage I and Stage IV. Patients who are diagnosed with Stage IV mesothelioma are in the last and most advanced stage, and consequently have less effective treatment options. By the time mesothelioma is characterized as Stage IV, tumor growth and symptoms are intensified in comparison to previous stages. This stage carries the poorest prognosis, but resources are available to help patients cope and make the best treatment decisions for their case.

    A Stage IV diagnosis is determined by the extent of how far the cancer has spread from its original location. If mesothelioma tumors initiated in the pleura have affected the chest wall, diaphragm, lining of the heart, or other areas, a Stage IV diagnosis will be made. With this type of mesothelioma, doctors may avoid using potentially curative treatments such as surgery because the extent of the cancer and the risks involved.
    If you have questions about Stage IV mesothelioma or need help finding financial assistance to pay for medical bills, fill out the form below. You'll receive a complimentary packet with important information for mesothelioma patients and their families.

    Prognosis for stage 4
    Patients with Stage IV mesothelioma generally have a poor prognosis because the cancer has spread to other parts of the body, making treatment options limited and less effective. Described as “distant metastasis” in staging systems, mesothelioma will typically spread throughout the abdomen, into lymph nodes, and sometimes into the heart sac or other organs. Patients with Stage IV mesothelioma have an average life expectancy of six and a half months after a diagnosis is made.

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